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Chin surgery (clinically known as Mentoplasty or Genioplasty) is a set of surgical procedures used to modify the appearance of the chin. This feature is an essential component of facial contour and proportions. Mentoplasty can modify the chin profile and correct the appearance of a double-chin. Chin surgery can be performed in conjunction with other facial procedures such as nose reshaping surgery and cheek enhancement, to harmonise facial contours (known as Profiloplasty.)
What determines chin projection?
The chin is made up of skin, a fat pad which varies in thickness in each individual, a layer of muscle and the front part of the lower jawbone.
What is the ‘ideal’chin shape
Assuming that perfection exists when it comes to beauty ideals (a somewhat controversial theory from an aesthetic viewpoint) the ideal chin shape should be neither too long nor too short from a frontal view, and neither too prominent nor too recessed from a profile view.
How does the appearance of the chin affect facial proportions?
The chin-nose-mouth ratio plays a vital role in facial symmetry and proportions. Profiloplasty to balance the features, evaluates chin shape, nose projection and the position of the mouth before surgery.
Can an incorrect chin alignment cause functional problems?
Occasionally, an irregular chin position may cause problems with gums and teeth, chewing, and other issues related to bite and jaw bone development. These patients may require a more extensive procedure carried out with the assistance of an oral maxillofacial surgeon to modify sections of bone.
What are the common chin concerns and chin surgery techniques?
Chin augmentation surgery can enhance small, recessed and weak chins.
Chin reduction surgery can reduce prominent or protruding chins.
Several techniques may be used to correct the appearance of a double-chin, as we can see below.
What is Chin Enhancement Surgery?
This procedure is the most common technique used in chin surgery. It is carried out to enhance the chin profile in a receding or weak chin, which can impact the perceived appearance of the nose. These patients require a careful assessment of the features, and facial balancing procedures such as nose reshaping surgery, may be performed.
There are four techniques used to perform chin enhancement surgery:
- Chin implant placement is the most common procedure. The surgeon inserts the implant through an incision inside the mouth or under the chin.
- A horizontal sliding technique using screws and plates can be used to bring the chin forward.
- Fat grafting using the patient’s fat to re-contour the chin area.
- Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are the most straightforward option; however, they are a short-term solution to correct chin profile as the effects last 8-20 months.
What type of anaesthesia does Chin Enhancement Surgery require?
This procedure is carried out with a general anaesthetic.
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What is Chin Reduction Surgery?
A reduction mentoplasty is carried out to reduce a prominent chin, by resectioning or shaving down the chin bone located in the lower part of the jaw. Oral maxillofacial surgeons commonly perform this procedure. Occasionally, a prominent chin may be caused by an increased thickness in fibrous tissue. In these cases, the plastic surgeon makes an incision under the chin to perform reduction surgery.
What causes the appearance of a double-chin?
There are three factors which may cause a double-chin:
- an accumulation of fat caused by weak chin profile
- an accumulation of fat influenced by hereditary factors, weight gain or a loss in skin elasticity due to ageing.
There are various techniques to treat this problem area:
- liposuction to remove stubborn fat
- augmentation genioplasty with implants to increase chin projection and tighten the skin
- a combination of both techniques to correct a weak chin with an accumulation of fat deposits;
- a neck lift to tighten skin if this is the cause of a double-chin
- injectable deoxycholic acid fillers, such as Belchyra and Allergan, to reduce fat.